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Dual contraceptive method use and pregnancy intention among people living with HIV receiving HIV care at six hospitals in Thailand - Background: Describe dual contraceptive method use and the intention to become pregnant of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and their partners in Thailand. Methods: From January 2008?March 2009, we systematically selected a cohort of PLHIV from PLHIV seeking care at five tertiary care hospitals and one community hospital to complete a questionnaire assessing sexual activity, intention to become pregnant, and contraceptive practices at baseline and 12†months after enrollment. Participants received short family planning messages every 2?3 months to promote the use of dual contraceptives and were offered family planning services. Results: A total of 1,388 PLHIV enrolled, their median age was 37†years (IQR 33?43), 898 (64.7†%) had a steady partner, and 737 (53.1†%) were male. Among those with a steady partner, 862 (96.0†%) did not intend to become pregnant; 709 (82.3†%) had sex during the previous 3†months, 683 (96.3†%) used at least one contraceptive method, and 202 (29.6†%) used dual contr...
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Salient beliefs towards vaginal delivery in pregnant women: A qualitative study from Iran - Background: Childbirth by cesarean section has increased at an alarming rate over the past few years in Iran. The present study was designed to explore pregnant women?s beliefs about the mode of delivery in order to provide some suggestions for future interventions to increase vaginal delivery. Methods: This was a qualitative study framed by the Theory of Planned Behavior conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2013. Pregnant women attending public hospitals were recruited. The data were collected via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Interviews were conducted in a semi-structured manner. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. A content analysis approach was used to explore the data. Results: In all 36 pregnant women participated in the study. The mean age of women was 27.8 (SD?=?4.5) years. In general, women preferred vaginal delivery. During interviews and focus group discussions several themes emerged related to the pain associated with vaginal delivery, fea...
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Factors leading to cesarean section delivery at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective record review - Background: Cesarean section is the commonest obstetric operative procedure worldwide. When used appropriately cesarean sections can improve infant and/or maternal outcomes. However, when used inappropriately the potential harm may exceed the potential benefit of cesarean section. Appreciating the limited information in this area the current study assessed the rate and factors associated with cesarean section in Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.MethodThe study was a retrospective analysis of eligible patient records that included 2967 pregnant women who had underwent either cesarean or vaginal delivery from July 1, 2012 to June 31, 2013. The data were double entered to EPI-INFO 3.5.2 and analyzed with SPSS. Binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify independent factors associated with cesarean section.ResultThe proportion of women who underwent cesarean section in this study was 25.4†%. Obstructed labor (30.7†%), fetal distress (15.9†%) and abno...
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Unmet reproductive health needs among women in some West African countries: a systematic review of outcome measures and determinants - Background: Identifying relevant measures of women?s reproductive health needs is critical to improve women?s chances of service utilization. The study aims to systematically review and analyze the adequacy of outcome measures and determinants applied in previous studies for assessing women reproductive health needs across West Africa. Methods: Evidence on outcomes and determinants of unmet reproductive health needs among women of childbearing age in diverse multicultural, religious, and ethnic settings in West African countries was systematically reviewed. The review included recent English language publications (from January 2009 - March 2014). Clinical studies particularly on obstetric care services and reproductive services in relation to HIV/AIDS were excluded. We acknowledge the possibility to have excluded non-English publications and yet-to-be-published articles related to the study aim and objectives. Outcomes and determinants were assessed and defined at three main levels; co...
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Tocolysis for inhibiting preterm birth in extremely preterm birth, multiple gestations and in growth-restricted fetuses: a systematic review and meta-analysis - This systematic review was to identify available evidence on the effectiveness of tocolysis in inhibiting preterm delivery for women with threatened extremely preterm birth, multiple gestations, and growth-restricted babies, and their infants? outcomes. A comprehensive search using MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, POPLINE and the WHO Global Health Library databases was conducted on 14 February 2014. For selection criteria, randomized controlled trials and non-randomized studies that compared tocolysis treatment to placebo or no treatment were considered. Selection of eligible studies, critical appraisal of the included studies, data collection, meta-analyses, and assessment of evidence quality were performed in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration?s guidance and validated assessment criteria. The search identified seven studies for extremely preterm birth, in which three were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four were non-randomized studies (non-RCTs). There ...
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Reorienting adolescent sexual and reproductive health research: reflections from an international conference - On December 4th 2014, the International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) at Ghent University organized an international conference on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) and well-being. This viewpoint highlights two key messages of the conference - 1) ASRH promotion is broadening on different levels and 2) this broadening has important implications for research and interventions ? that can guide this research field into the next decade. Adolescent sexuality has long been equated with risk and danger. However, throughout the presentations, it became clear that ASRH and related promotion efforts are broadening on different levels: from risk to well-being, from targeted and individual to comprehensive and structural, from knowledge transfer to innovative tools. However, indicators to measure adolescent sexuality that should accompany this broadening trend, are lacking. While public health related indicators (HIV/STIs, pregnancies) and their behavioral proxies (e.g. condo...
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Balancing workload, motivation and job satisfaction in Rwanda: assessing the effect of adding family planning service provision to community health worker duties - Background: Task shifting from higher cadre providers to CHWs has been widely adopted to address healthcare provider shortages, but the addition of any service can potentially add to an already considerable workload for CHWs. Objective measures of workload alone, such as work-related time and travel may not reflect howCHWs actually perceive and react to their circumstances. This study combined perception and objectivemeasures of workload to examine their effect on quality of services, worker performance, and job and clientsatisfaction. Methods: Three hundred eighty-three CHWs from control and intervention districts, where the intervention group was trained to provide contraceptive resupply, completed diaries of work-related activities for one month. Interviews were also conducted with a subset of CHWs and their clients. Results: CHW diaries did not reveal significant differences between intervention and control groups in time spent on service provision or travel. Over 90†% of CHWs repo...
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Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF): the development of a mobile phone-based (mHealth) intervention to support post-abortion family planning (PAFP) in Cambodia - Background: The objective of this paper is to outline the formative research process used to develop the MOTIF mobile phone-based (mHealth) intervention to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. Methods: The formative research process involved literature reviews, interviews and focus group discussions with clients, and consultation with clinicians and organisations implementing mHealth activities in Cambodia. This process led to the development of a conceptual framework and the intervention. Results: Key findings from the formative research included identification of the main reasons for non-use of contraception and patterns of mobile phone use in Cambodia. We drew on components of existing interventions and behaviour change theory to develop a conceptual framework. A multi-faceted voice-based intervention was designed to address health concerns and other key determinants of contraception use. Conclusions: Formative research was essential in order to develop an appropriate ...
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Prevalence and outcome of teenage hospital births at the buea health district, South West Region, Cameroon - Background: Teenage pregnancy is a high-risk condition that requires skilled antenatal care for good outcome. World estimates in 2008 report about 16 million births to adolescent mothers, most of them occurring in low and middle-income countries. In Cameroon, about 12†% of all births are to adolescent mothers. This study determines the prevalence of hospital teenage deliveries in the Buea Health District and compares the delivery outcomes and demographic characteristics between pregnant teenage mothers (14?19) and adult mothers (20?29 years). We also identify factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We undertook a retrospective study of case files of patients who gave birth in the Buea Regional Hospital during the period 2009?2012, to determine the prevalence of hospital-delivered teenage pregnancies in the BHR. We also undertook a, cross-sectional study to compare the outcomes of 148 singleton adolescent births with 360 adult births in three health facilities in th...
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Socio-cultural and economic factors influencing adolescents’ resilience against the threat of teenage pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey in Accra, Ghana - Background: Adolescent pregnancy exposes female adolescents to medical, social and economic risks. In Ghana, adolescent mothers are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and delivery as compared to older mothers. This study examined the competencies of adolescent girls to either proactively prevent teenage pregnancy or reactively cope effectively with it. Methods: A cross-sectional survey approach was used to interview 820 adolescent girls aged 15?19 years in Accra, Ghana. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (various kinds of valued relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources, mainly cash and assets), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits; knowledge and tradition stored in material forms and institutionalized) and symbolic capital (honour, recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of competencies of adolescents to deal with the threat of teenage pregnancy and childbirth. Re...
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Help Me Make it Through the Night: Restless Legs Syndrome - It seems like your legs just won‚??t stop moving even when you try to sleep. Restless leg syndrome can lead to many a sleepless night. If you have been experiencing something like this, it‚??s time to get help. What Is Restless Leg Syndrome? Restless leg syndrome or RLS is the term used to describe the […]...
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5 Ways to Add Herbs to Your Diet - Herbs are essential in your diet if you want to have a balanced well alkalized system. The human body needs to be at a 7.35 pH to be at its optimal health. By striving to maintain a balanced pH, you can ward off many diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and obesity. Who knew it […]...
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Home Medicine: Foods, Herbs, Essential Oils for High Blood Pressure - Hypertension or high blood pressure is often called the “silent killer”. “Silent” because it does not produce any significant recognizable symptoms and “killer” because even slightly high blood pressure can increase the risk of heart disease significantly. Hypertension is, in most cases, a lifestyle disease caused by unhealthy eating habits, smoking and alcohol abuse. A […]...
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Herbal Profile: Milk Thistle - Milk thistle, or Silybum marianum, is described as an annual, winter annual, and biennial herb that belongs to the Asteraceae family. The main stem of the milk thistle is stout and ridged. The branches spread out, giving the plant an overall size of two to six feet tall. The most distinguishing characteristic of this plant […]...
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Lemon Myrtle (Backhousia Citriodora) Essential Oil Profile, Benefits, Properties - Color: Pale Yellow Oil Consistency: Thin Perfumery Note: Top Initial Aroma Strength: Strong Scent: Extremely lemony and crisp. More ‚??lemony‚?Ě than true Lemon (Citrus limonum) oil. Action: Antibacterial, germicidal, sedative, antidepressant, antiseptic, antifungal, antiviral, disinfectant, hypotensive, calmative, mental stimulant, uplifting, relaxant Benefits, Indications: Lemon Myrtle is a much more effective germ killer than the more […...
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Watermelon Seed (Citrullus Vulgaris) Carrier Oil Profile, Benefits - Notes: Other thicker oils and those with shorter shelf lives can be blended with this oil to lighten their texture and scent, as well as extend their overall shelf life. Additional Name(s): Ootanga Oil, Kalahari Oil Scent: Faint, slightly nutty Consistency: Light Absorption/Feel: Penetrates well and quickly, non-greasy. Color: Yellow Shelf Life: Indefinite – highly […]...
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Hypothyroid Alternative Treatments - What Is Hypothyroidism? Primary Hypothyroidism, or under active thyroid gland, may cause a wide variety of symptoms and can affect all bodily functions. The body's normal rate of functioning slows, causing mental and physical sluggishness. The symptoms may vary from mild to severe, with the most severe form called myxedema, which is a medical emergency. […]...
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Garlic Honey Cough and Cold Syrup Recipe - Peel garlic cloves, put into a jar. cover with honey. Set in warm place for 2 weeks or more until the garlic turns opaque. Take 1 teaspoonful as needed. Dilute with a little water or lemon juice for children. Strengthen Your Immune System Naturally Beta-1, 3D Glucan boosts the immune system to provide support and […]...
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Clean and Green Part I - Use the ingredients listed below when making your own alternative cleaners, most are inexpensive and you probably already have many of them in your kitchen cupboards. All can be found at your local supermarket, natural food store or drugstore. Used individually or combined, these cleaners are safe, effective and cost-efficient. Ideas for Natural Green Cleaning […]...
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DIY: Body Odor, Perspiration (Sweat) Recipes - No Sweat Tea The following herbs, when brewed and drank as a tea are reported to reduce perspiration within 2 hours of use with its effects lasting several days: 4 cups boiling water 1 teaspoon dried hops 1 teaspoon stinging nettle 1 teaspoon fresh cut rose petals 1 teaspoon fresh or dried strawberry leaves 1 […]...
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Delicious Sauteed Potatoes and Carrots - You‚??ve probably had sauteed leftover potatoes before, but did you know carrots and other root vegetables can be a great addition? If you have leftover potatoes and carrots or any other root vegetable from yesterday‚??s dinner, you‚??re ready to go. You‚??ll have a delicious side dish in about 30 minutes. Ingredients: Leftover cooked potatoes Leftover […]...
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Spearmint (Mentha Spicata) Essential Oil Profile, Benefits, Properties - Color: Clear Oil Consistency: Thin Perfumery Note: Top Initial Aroma Strength: Medium Scent: Minty, slightly fruity aroma that is less bright than peppermint. Action: Anti-inflammatory, calmative, astringent, antiseptic, mucolytic, stimulates the gallbladder, promotes menstruation, antispasmodic, carminative, cephalic, emmenagogue, insecticidal, restorative, stimulant Benefits, Indications: Bronchitis, candida, cystitis, hypertension. May balance...
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Catnip (Nepeta Cataria) Essential Oil Profile, Benefits, Properties - Color: Pale Yellow/Orange Oil Consistency: Medium Perfumery Note: Middle Initial Aroma Strength: Medium Scent: Herbaceous with a subdued mint aroma. Action: Topical anesthetic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, astringent, carminative, nervine, sedative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, stomachic, stimulant Benefits, Indications: Apart from treating digestive problems, catnip essential oil is useful in times of stress as it has a calming ...
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12 Best Herbs for Respiratory Health - The inability of conventional medication to address the increasing numbers of respiratory problems has led people to look for alternate answers. Herbs offer a good alternative and there are many herbs that can be used for different types of respiratory issues....
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Essential Oil Blend for Arthritis - Condition: Inflammation of joints; swelling, redness of the skin and impaired motion. Two types: 1) Osteo: chronic disease involving joints, especially weight-bearing joints; 2) Rheumatoid: chronic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints that may result in crippling. Supplies: Tea Tree Oil, grapeseed or Jojoba oil. Remedy: For swelling, apply a flannel compress with several […]...
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Antiviral and Immune-Stimulating Herbs - Antiviral and Immune-Stimulating Herbs Lemon Balm Boneset Chamomile Cinnamon Echinacea Ginger Ginseng St Johns Wort Get your dried, organic herbs, organic essential oils, bulk spices, loose leaf organic teas and aromatherapy supplies at the place where we shop – StarWest Botanicals! Immune System Stimulants Barberry Basil Boneset Chamomile Echinacea Ginger Ginseng Goldenseal Gotu Kola Licorice […]...
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Too Much to Do? Try This Revitalizing and Energizing Tonic Recipe - Too much to do? Not feeling well? Maybe you're going out of town or had a houseful of company for the holidays, or just the stress of a modern and busy life. Regardless, this blend can help. Here's a blend with a fresh aroma that will revitalize and is an excellent tonic for the respiratory […]...
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Apple and Spice Simmering Potpourri - Add 40 drops spiced apple oil, 10 drops bitter Almond and Cinnamon oils to¬ľ cup Calamus root in a lidded glass jar. Shaking occasionally let the fixative absorb the oils for at least 2 days. Add this mixture to 2 ¬Ĺ cups Chamomile flowers, 1 ¬Ĺ cups red rosebuds, 2 cups whole applemint or Spearmint […]...
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Hangover Compress Recipe - 1 d. Peppermint oil 1 d. Rosewood oil 1 d. Lavender oil: on a cool, wet rag. Get your dried, organic herbs, organic essential oils, bulk spices, loose leaf organic teas and aromatherapy supplies at the place where we shop – StarWest Botanicals! Apply to temples for 10 minutes....
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Drying, Preserving Flowers, Herbs, Leaves ? How To - I love fresh flowers. But dried flowers make up about 85 percent of the arrangements in my house. Every holiday is an excuse to make a new dried flower arrangement in a vase or basket, to decorate a coffee table, or act as centerpiece on the dining room table. These arrangements are one of the […]...
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