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    Wicked evolution: Can we address the sociobiological dilemma of pesticide resistance? - Resistance to insecticides and herbicides has cost billions of U.S. dollars in the agricultural sector and could result in millions of lives lost to insect-vectored diseases. We mostly continue to use pesticides as if resistance is a temporary issue that will be addressed by commercialization of new pesticides with novel modes of action. However, current evidence suggests that insect and weed evolution may outstrip our ability to replace outmode...
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    Genomic insights into the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens - Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been vital for revealing the rapid temporal and spatial evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens. Some antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have outpaced us, with untreatable infections appearing in hospitals and the community. However, WGS has additionally provided us with enough knowledge to initiate countermeasures. Although we cannot stop bacterial adaptation, the predictability of man...
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    Worldwide emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs challenges human health and food security - The recent rate of emergence of pathogenic fungi that are resistant to the limited number of commonly used antifungal agents is unprecedented. The azoles, for example, are used not only for human and animal health care and crop protection but also in antifouling coatings and timber preservation. The ubiquity and multiple uses of azoles have hastened the independent evolution of resistance in many environments. One consequence is an increasing ri...
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    Prospects for harnessing biocide resistance for bioremediation and detoxification - Prokaryotes in natural environments respond rapidly to high concentrations of chemicals and physical stresses. Exposure to anthropogenic toxic substances—such as oil, chlorinated solvents, or antibiotics—favors the evolution of resistant phenotypes, some of which can use contaminants as an exclusive carbon source or as electron donors and acceptors. Microorganisms similarly adapt to extreme pH, metal, or osmotic stress. The metabolic...
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    NUFIP1 is a ribosome receptor for starvation-induced ribophagy - The lysosome degrades and recycles macromolecules, signals to the master growth regulator mTORC1 [mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1], and is associated with human disease. We performed quantitative proteomic analyses of rapidly isolated lysosomes and found that nutrient levels and mTOR dynamically modulate the lysosomal proteome. Upon mTORC1 inhibition, NUFIP1 (nuclear fragile X mental retardation–interacting protein 1) redi...
    Feed Source: science.sciencemag.org

    Single-cell transcriptomics of the mouse kidney reveals potential cellular targets of kidney disease - Our understanding of kidney disease pathogenesis is limited by an incomplete molecular characterization of the cell types responsible for the organ’s multiple homeostatic functions. To help fill this knowledge gap, we characterized 57,979 cells from healthy mouse kidneys by using unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing. On the basis of gene expression patterns, we infer that inherited kidney diseases that arise from distinct genetic mutations ...
    Feed Source: science.sciencemag.org

    Elastic strain engineering for ultralow mechanical dissipation - Extreme stresses can be produced in nanoscale structures; this feature has been used to realize enhanced materials properties, such as the high mobility of silicon in modern transistors. We show how nanoscale stress can be used to realize exceptionally low mechanical dissipation when combined with "soft-clamping"—a form of phononic engineering. Specifically, using a nonuniform phononic crystal pattern, we colocalize the strain and flexural...
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    Hybrid molecular-colloidal liquid crystals - Order and fluidity often coexist, with examples ranging from biological membranes to liquid crystals, but the symmetry of these soft-matter systems is typically higher than that of the constituent building blocks. We dispersed micrometer-long inorganic colloidal rods in a nematic liquid crystalline fluid of molecular rods. Both types of uniaxial building blocks, while freely diffusing, interact to form an orthorhombic nematic fluid, in which lik...
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    Extraordinary plasticity of an inorganic semiconductor in darkness - Inorganic semiconductors generally tend to fail in a brittle manner. Here, we report that extraordinary "plasticity" can take place in an inorganic semiconductor if the deformation is carried out "in complete darkness." Room-temperature deformation tests of zinc sulfide (ZnS) were performed under varying light conditions. ZnS crystals immediately fractured when they deformed under light irradiation. In contrast, it was found that ZnS crystals ca...
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    Imaging of nonlocal hot-electron energy dissipation via shot noise - In modern microelectronic devices, hot electrons accelerate, scatter, and dissipate energy in nanoscale dimensions. Despite recent progress in nanothermometry, direct real-space mapping of hot-electron energy dissipation is challenging because existing techniques are restricted to probing the lattice rather than the electrons. We realize electronic nanothermometry by measuring local current fluctuations, or shot noise, associated with ultrafast ...
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    3D charge and 2D phonon transports leading to high out-of-plane ZT in n-type SnSe crystals - Thermoelectric technology enables the harvest of waste heat and its direct conversion into electricity. The conversion efficiency is determined by the materials figure of merit ZT. Here we show a maximum ZT of ~2.8 ± 0.5 at 773 kelvin in n-type tin selenide (SnSe) crystals out of plane. The thermal conductivity in layered SnSe crystals is the lowest in the out-of-plane direction [two-dimensional (2D) phonon transport]. We doped SnSe with ...
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    CO2 electroreduction to ethylene via hydroxide-mediated copper catalysis at an abrupt interface - Carbon dioxide (CO2) electroreduction could provide a useful source of ethylene, but low conversion efficiency, low production rates, and low catalyst stability limit current systems. Here we report that a copper electrocatalyst at an abrupt reaction interface in an alkaline electrolyte reduces CO2 to ethylene with 70% faradaic efficiency at a potential of –0.55 volts versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Hydroxide ions on or near ...
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    One-third of global protected land is under intense human pressure - In an era of massive biodiversity loss, the greatest conservation success story has been the growth of protected land globally. Protected areas are the primary defense against biodiversity loss, but extensive human activity within their boundaries can undermine this. Using the most comprehensive global map of human pressure, we show that 6 million square kilometers (32.8%) of protected land is under intense human pressure. For protected areas de...
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    The projected effect on insects, vertebrates, and plants of limiting global warming to 1.5{degrees}C rather than 2{degrees}C - In the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the United Nations is pursuing efforts to limit global warming to 1.5°C, whereas earlier aspirations focused on a 2°C limit. With current pledges, corresponding to ~3.2°C warming, climatically determined geographic range losses of >50% are projected in ~49% of insects, 44% of plants, and 26% of vertebrates. At 2°C, this falls to 18% of insects, 16% of plants, and 8% of vertebrates and ...
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    Gut microbiota utilize immunoglobulin A for mucosal colonization - The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection while permitting lifelong colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. Specific immune recognition facilitated bacteria...
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    SLAM-seq defines direct gene-regulatory functions of the BRD4-MYC axis - Defining direct targets of transcription factors and regulatory pathways is key to understanding their roles in physiology and disease. We combined SLAM-seq [thiol(SH)–linked alkylation for the metabolic sequencing of RNA], a method for direct quantification of newly synthesized messenger RNAs (mRNAs), with pharmacological and chemical-genetic perturbation in order to define regulatory functions of two transcriptional hubs in cancer, BRD4 ...
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    Comment on "Maxima in the thermodynamic response and correlation functions of deeply supercooled water" - Kim et al. recently measured the structure factor of deeply supercooled water droplets (Reports, 22 December 2017, p. 1589). We raise several concerns about their data analysis and interpretation. In our opinion, the reported data do not lead to clear conclusions about the origins of water’s anomalies. ...
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    Response to Comment on "Maxima in the thermodynamic response and correlation functions of deeply supercooled water" - Caupin et al. have raised several issues regarding our recent paper on maxima in thermodynamic response and correlation functions in deeply supercooled water. We show that these issues can be addressed without affecting the conclusion of the paper. ...
    Feed Source: science.sciencemag.org

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