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    Brainstem nucleus incertus controls contextual memory formation - Hippocampal pyramidal cells encode memory engrams, which guide adaptive behavior. Selection of engram-forming cells is regulated by somatostatin-positive dendrite-targeting interneurons, which inhibit pyramidal cells that are not required for memory formation. Here, we found that -aminobutyric acid (GABA)–releasing neurons of the mouse nucleus incertus (NI) selectively inhibit somatostatin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus, both mon...
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    Strongly correlated quantum walks with a 12-qubit superconducting processor - Quantum walks are the quantum analogs of classical random walks, which allow for the simulation of large-scale quantum many-body systems and the realization of universal quantum computation without time-dependent control. We experimentally demonstrate quantum walks of one and two strongly correlated microwave photons in a one-dimensional array of 12 superconducting qubits with short-range interactions. First, in one-photon quantum walks, we obse...
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    Electrified methane reforming: A compact approach to greener industrial hydrogen production - Electrification of conventionally fired chemical reactors has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions and provide flexible and compact heat generation. Here, we describe a disruptive approach to a fundamental process by integrating an electrically heated catalytic structure directly into a steam-methane–reforming (SMR) reactor for hydrogen production. Intimate contact between the electric heat source and the reaction site drives the reaction...
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    A radiative cooling structural material - Reducing human reliance on energy-inefficient cooling methods such as air conditioning would have a large impact on the global energy landscape. By a process of complete delignification and densification of wood, we developed a structural material with a mechanical strength of 404.3 megapascals, more than eight times that of natural wood. The cellulose nanofibers in our engineered material backscatter solar radiation and emit strongly in mid-inf...
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    Anti-Markovnikov alcohols via epoxide hydrogenation through cooperative catalysis - The opening of epoxides typically requires electrophilic activation, and subsequent nucleophilic (SN2) attack on the less substituted carbon leads to alcohols with Markovnikov regioselectivity. We describe a cooperative catalysis approach to anti-Markovnikov alcohols by combining titanocene-catalyzed epoxide opening with chromium-catalyzed hydrogen activation and radical reduction. The titanocene enforces the anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity by...
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    Searching for hidden earthquakes in Southern California - Earthquakes follow a well-known power-law size relation, with smaller events occurring much more often than larger events. Earthquake catalogs are thus dominated by small earthquakes yet are still missing a much larger number of even smaller events because of signal fidelity issues. To overcome these limitations, we applied a template-matching detection technique to the entire waveform archive of the regional seismic network in Southern Californ...
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    Detecting nanometric displacements with optical ruler metrology - We introduce the optical ruler, an electromagnetic analog of a physical ruler, for nanoscale displacement metrology. The optical ruler is a complex electromagnetic field in which singularities serve as the marks on the scale. It is created by the diffraction of light on a metasurface, with singularity marks then revealed by high-magnification interferometric observation. Using a Pancharatnam-Berry phase metasurface, we demonstrate a displacement...
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    Molecular basis for high-affinity agonist binding in GPCRs - G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the G protein–coupled active state have higher affinity for agonists as compared with when they are in the inactive state, but the molecular basis for this is unclear. We have determined four active-state structures of the β1-adrenoceptor (β1AR) bound to conformation-specific nanobodies in the presence of agonists of varying efficacy. Comparison with inactive-state structures of β...
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    Role of AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump in drug-resistance acquisition by plasmid transfer - Drug-resistance dissemination by horizontal gene transfer remains poorly understood at the cellular scale. Using live-cell microscopy, we reveal the dynamics of resistance acquisition by transfer of the Escherichia coli fertility factor–conjugation plasmid encoding the tetracycline-efflux pump TetA. The entry of the single-stranded DNA plasmid into the recipient cell is rapidly followed by complementary-strand synthesis, plasmid-gene expre...
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    Shifting habitat mosaics and fish production across river basins - Watersheds are complex mosaics of habitats whose conditions vary across space and time as landscape features filter overriding climate forcing, yet the extent to which the reliability of ecosystem services depends on these dynamics remains unknown. We quantified how shifting habitat mosaics are expressed across a range of spatial scales within a large, free-flowing river, and how they stabilize the production of Pacific salmon that support valua...
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    Bacterial pseudokinase catalyzes protein polyglutamylation to inhibit the SidE-family ubiquitin ligases - Enzymes with a protein kinase fold transfer phosphate from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to substrates in a process known as phosphorylation. Here, we show that the Legionella meta-effector SidJ adopts a protein kinase fold, yet unexpectedly catalyzes protein polyglutamylation. SidJ is activated by host-cell calmodulin to polyglutamylate the SidE family of ubiquitin (Ub) ligases. Crystal structures of the SidJ-calmodulin complex reveal a prote...
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    Protein crystallization promotes type 2 immunity and is reversible by antibody treatment - Although spontaneous protein crystallization is a rare event in vivo, Charcot-Leyden crystals (CLCs) consisting of galectin-10 (Gal10) protein are frequently observed in eosinophilic diseases, such as asthma. We found that CLCs derived from patients showed crystal packing and Gal10 structure identical to those of Gal10 crystals grown in vitro. When administered to the airways, crystalline Gal10 stimulated innate and adaptive immunity and acted a...
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    Germline selection shapes human mitochondrial DNA diversity - Approximately 2.4% of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome exhibits common homoplasmic genetic variation. We analyzed 12,975 whole-genome sequences to show that 45.1% of individuals from 1526 mother–offspring pairs harbor a mixed population of mtDNA (heteroplasmy), but the propensity for maternal transmission differs across the mitochondrial genome. Over one generation, we observed selection both for and against variants in specific ...
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    Topological control of cytokine receptor signaling induces differential effects in hematopoiesis - Although tunable signaling by G protein–coupled receptors can be exploited through medicinal chemistry, a comparable pharmacological approach has been lacking for the modulation of signaling through dimeric receptors, such as those for cytokines. We present a strategy to modulate cytokine receptor signaling output by use of a series of designed C2-symmetric cytokine mimetics, based on the designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) scaffold, ...
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