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    Suppressing corrosion in primary aluminum-air batteries via oil displacement - Primary aluminum–air batteries boast high theoretical energy densities, but negative electrode corrosion irreversibly limits their shelf life. Most corrosion mitigation methods are insufficient or compromise power and energy density. We suppressed open-circuit corrosion by displacing electrolyte from the electrode surface with a nonconducting oil during battery standby. High power and energy density are enabled by displacing the oil with e...
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    Photon-mediated interactions between quantum emitters in a diamond nanocavity - Photon-mediated interactions between quantum systems are essential for realizing quantum networks and scalable quantum information processing. We demonstrate such interactions between pairs of silicon-vacancy (SiV) color centers coupled to a diamond nanophotonic cavity. When the optical transitions of the two color centers are tuned into resonance, the coupling to the common cavity mode results in a coherent interaction between them, leading to ...
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    Controlled crack propagation for atomic precision handling of wafer-scale two-dimensional materials - Although flakes of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures at the micrometer scale can be formed with adhesive-tape exfoliation methods, isolation of 2D flakes into monolayers is extremely time consuming because it is a trial-and-error process. Controlling the number of 2D layers through direct growth also presents difficulty because of the high nucleation barrier on 2D materials. We demonstrate a layer-resolved 2D material splitting technique tha...
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    Perivascular dendritic cells elicit anaphylaxis by relaying allergens to mast cells via microvesicles - Anaphylactic reactions are triggered when allergens enter the blood circulation and activate immunoglobulin E (IgE)–sensitized mast cells (MCs), causing systemic discharge of prestored proinflammatory mediators. As MCs are extravascular, how they perceive circulating allergens remains a conundrum. Here, we describe the existence of a CD301b+ perivascular dendritic cell (DC) subset that continuously samples blood and relays antigens to neig...
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    Enantiodivergent Pd-catalyzed C-C bond formation enabled through ligand parameterization - Despite the enormous potential for the use of stereospecific cross-coupling reactions to rationally manipulate the three-dimensional structure of organic molecules, the factors that control the transfer of stereochemistry in these reactions remain poorly understood. Here we report a mechanistic and synthetic investigation into the use of enantioenriched alkylboron nucleophiles in stereospecific Pd-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. By de...
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    Nested sequences of hippocampal assemblies during behavior support subsequent sleep replay - Consolidation of spatial and episodic memories is thought to rely on replay of neuronal activity sequences during sleep. However, the network dynamics underlying the initial storage of memories during wakefulness have never been tested. Although slow, behavioral time scale sequences have been claimed to sustain sequential memory formation, fast ("theta") time scale sequences, nested within slow sequences, could be instrumental. We found that in ...
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    Global pattern of nest predation is disrupted by climate change in shorebirds - Ongoing climate change is thought to disrupt trophic relationships, with consequences for complex interspecific interactions, yet the effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood, and such effects have not been documented at a global scale. Using a single database of 38,191 nests from 237 populations, we found that shorebirds have experienced a worldwide increase in nest predation over the past 70 years. Historically, ...
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    Neonicotinoid exposure disrupts bumblebee nest behavior, social networks, and thermoregulation - Neonicotinoid pesticides can negatively affect bee colonies, but the behavioral mechanisms by which these compounds impair colony growth remain unclear. Here, we investigate imidacloprid’s effects on bumblebee worker behavior within the nest, using an automated, robotic platform for continuous, multicolony monitoring of uniquely identified workers. We find that exposure to field-realistic levels of imidacloprid impairs nursing and alters s...
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    Heterogeneity in efflux pump expression predisposes antibiotic-resistant cells to mutation - Antibiotic resistance is often the result of mutations that block drug activity; however, bacteria also evade antibiotics by transiently expressing genes such as multidrug efflux pumps. A crucial question is whether transient resistance can promote permanent genetic changes. Previous studies have established that antibiotic treatment can select tolerant cells that then mutate to achieve permanent resistance. Whether these mutations result from a...
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    Identity inference of genomic data using long-range familial searches - Consumer genomics databases have reached the scale of millions of individuals. Recently, law enforcement authorities have exploited some of these databases to identify suspects via distant familial relatives. Using genomic data of 1.28 million individuals tested with consumer genomics, we investigated the power of this technique. We project that about 60% of the searches for individuals of European descent will result in a third-cousin or closer...
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    WDFY4 is required for cross-presentation in response to viral and tumor antigens - During the process of cross-presentation, viral or tumor-derived antigens are presented to CD8+ T cells by Batf3-dependent CD8α+/XCR1+ classical dendritic cells (cDC1s). We designed a functional CRISPR screen for previously unknown regulators of cross-presentation, and identified the BEACH domain–containing protein WDFY4 as essential for cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens by cDC1s in mice. However, WDFY4 was not required ...
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    An autoimmune disease variant of IgG1 modulates B cell activation and differentiation - The maintenance of autoreactive B cells in a quiescent state is crucial for preventing autoimmunity. Here we identify a variant of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with a Gly396->Arg substitution (hIgG1-G396R), which positively correlates with systemic lupus erythematosus. In induced lupus models, murine homolog Gly390->Arg (G390R) knockin mice generate excessive numbers of plasma cells, leading to a burst of broad-spectrum autoantibodies. T...
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    De novo design of self-assembling helical protein filaments - We describe a general computational approach to designing self-assembling helical filaments from monomeric proteins and use this approach to design proteins that assemble into micrometer-scale filaments with a wide range of geometries in vivo and in vitro. Cryo–electron microscopy structures of six designs are close to the computational design models. The filament building blocks are idealized repeat proteins, and thus the diameter of the ...
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    Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying lifes tape - Historical processes display some degree of "contingency," meaning their outcomes are sensitive to seemingly inconsequential events that can fundamentally change the future. Contingency is what makes historical outcomes unpredictable. Unlike many other natural phenomena, evolution is a historical process. Evolutionary change is often driven by the deterministic force of natural selection, but natural selection works upon variation that arises un...
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    Structural insight into precursor tRNA processing by yeast ribonuclease P - Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a universal ribozyme responsible for processing the 5'-leader of pre–transfer RNA (pre-tRNA). Here, we report the 3.5-angstrom cryo–electron microscopy structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase P alone and in complex with pre-tRNAPhe. The protein components form a hook-shaped architecture that wraps around the RNA and stabilizes RNase P into a "measuring device" with two fixed anchors that recognize the...
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    Navigating cognition: Spatial codes for human thinking - The hippocampal formation has long been suggested to underlie both memory formation and spatial navigation. We discuss how neural mechanisms identified in spatial navigation research operate across information domains to support a wide spectrum of cognitive functions. In our framework, place and grid cell population codes provide a representational format to map variable dimensions of cognitive spaces. This highly dynamic mapping system enables ...
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