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    Changing dynamics of the drug overdose epidemic in the United States from 1979 through 2016 - Better understanding of the dynamics of the current U.S. overdose epidemic may aid in the development of more effective prevention and control strategies. We analyzed records of 599,255 deaths from 1979 through 2016 from the National Vital Statistics System in which accidental drug poisoning was identified as the main cause of death. By examining all available data on accidental poisoning deaths back to 1979 and showing that the overall 38-year ...
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    Reconfigurable system for automated optimization of diverse chemical reactions - Chemical synthesis generally requires labor-intensive, sometimes tedious trial-and-error optimization of reaction conditions. Here, we describe a plug-and-play, continuous-flow chemical synthesis system that mitigates this challenge with an integrated combination of hardware, software, and analytics. The system software controls the user-selected reagents and unit operations (reactors and separators), processes reaction analytics (high-performan...
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    Suppressing spatiotemporal lasing instabilities with wave-chaotic microcavities - Spatiotemporal instabilities are widespread phenomena resulting from complexity and nonlinearity. In broad-area edge-emitting semiconductor lasers, the nonlinear interactions of multiple spatial modes with the active medium can result in filamentation and spatiotemporal chaos. These instabilities degrade the laser performance and are extremely challenging to control. We demonstrate a powerful approach to suppress spatiotemporal instabilities usi...
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    Asteroseismic detection of latitudinal differential rotation in 13 Sun-like stars - The differentially rotating outer layers of stars are thought to play a role in driving their magnetic activity, but the underlying mechanisms that generate and sustain differential rotation are poorly understood. We report the measurement using asteroseismology of latitudinal differential rotation in the convection zones of 40 Sun-like stars. For the most significant detections, the stars’ equators rotate approximately twice as fast as th...
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    Unlocking P(V): Reagents for chiral phosphorothioate synthesis - Phosphorothioate nucleotides have emerged as powerful pharmacological substitutes of their native phosphodiester analogs with important translational applications in antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapeutics and cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) synthesis. Stereocontrolled installation of this chiral motif has long been hampered by the systemic use of phosphorus(III) [P(III)]–based reagent systems as the sole practical means of oligonucleotide ...
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    Measurement of a superconducting qubit with a microwave photon counter - Fast, high-fidelity measurement is a key ingredient for quantum error correction. Conventional approaches to the measurement of superconducting qubits, involving linear amplification of a microwave probe tone followed by heterodyne detection at room temperature, do not scale well to large system sizes. We introduce an approach to measurement based on a microwave photon counter demonstrating raw single-shot measurement fidelity of 92%. Moreover, ...
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    Self-assembly of lattices with high structural complexity from a geometrically simple molecule - Here we report an anomalous porous molecular crystal built of C–H···N-bonded double-layered roof-floor components and wall components of a segregatively interdigitated architecture. This complicated porous structure consists of only one type of fully aromatic multijoint molecule carrying three identical dipyridylphenyl wedges. Despite its high symmetry, this molecule accomplishes difficult tasks by using two of its thr...
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    Ancient steroids establish the Ediacaran fossil Dickinsonia as one of the earliest animals - The enigmatic Ediacara biota (571 million to 541 million years ago) represents the first macroscopic complex organisms in the geological record and may hold the key to our understanding of the origin of animals. Ediacaran macrofossils are as "strange as life on another planet" and have evaded taxonomic classification, with interpretations ranging from marine animals or giant single-celled protists to terrestrial lichens. Here, we show that lipid...
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    Fossils reveal the complex evolutionary history of the mammalian regionalized spine - A unique characteristic of mammals is a vertebral column with anatomically distinct regions, but when and how this trait evolved remains unknown. We reconstructed vertebral regions and their morphological disparity in the extinct forerunners of mammals, the nonmammalian synapsids, to elucidate the evolution of mammalian axial differentiation. Mapping patterns of regionalization and disparity (heterogeneity) across amniotes reveals that both trai...
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    Programmable protein circuits in living cells - Synthetic protein-level circuits could enable engineering of powerful new cellular behaviors. Rational protein circuit design would be facilitated by a composable protein-protein regulation system in which individual protein components can regulate one another to create a variety of different circuit architectures. In this study, we show that engineered viral proteases can function as composable protein components, which can together implement a...
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    Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease with expanded targeting space - The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 cleaves its target DNA and is a powerful genome-editing tool. However, the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 enzyme (SpCas9) requires an NGG protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) for target recognition, thereby restricting the targetable genomic loci. Here, we report a rationally engineered SpCas9 variant (SpCas9-NG) that can recognize relaxed NG PAMs. The crystal structure revealed that the loss of the base-spe...
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    Comment on "U-Th dating of carbonate crusts reveals Neandertal origin of Iberian cave art" - Hoffmann et al. (Reports, 23 February 2018, p. 912) report the discovery of parietal art older than 64,800 years and attributed to Neanderthals, at least 25 millennia before the oldest parietal art ever found. Instead, critical evaluation of their geochronological data seems to provide stronger support for an age of 47,000 years, which is much more consistent with the archaeological background in hand. ...
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    Bacterial antagonism in host-associated microbial communities - Antagonistic interactions are abundant in microbial communities and contribute not only to the composition and relative proportions of their members but also to the longer-term stability of a community. This Review will largely focus on bacterial antagonism mediated by ribosomally synthesized peptides and proteins produced by members of host-associated microbial communities. We discuss recent findings on their diversity, functions, and ecologica...
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    The periodic coloration in birds forms through a prepattern of somite origin - The periodic stripes and spots that often adorn animals’ coats have been largely viewed as self-organizing patterns, forming through dynamics such as Turing’s reaction-diffusion within the developing skin. Whether preexisting positional information also contributes to the periodicity and orientation of these patterns has, however, remained unclear. We used natural variation in colored stripes of juvenile galliform birds to show that ...
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    A gut-brain neural circuit for nutrient sensory transduction - The brain is thought to sense gut stimuli only via the passive release of hormones. This is because no connection has been described between the vagus and the putative gut epithelial sensor cell—the enteroendocrine cell. However, these electrically excitable cells contain several features of epithelial transducers. Using a mouse model, we found that enteroendocrine cells synapse with vagal neurons to transduce gut luminal signals in millis...
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    Challenges for commercializing perovskite solar cells - Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have witnessed rapidly rising power conversion efficiencies, together with advances in stability and upscaling. Despite these advances, their limited stability and need to prove upscaling remain crucial hurdles on the path to commercialization. We summarize recent advances toward commercially viable PSCs and discuss challenges that remain. We expound the development of standardized protocols to distinguish intrinsic...
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    Cellular checkpoint control using programmable sequential logic - Biological processes that require orderly progression, such as growth and differentiation, proceed via regulatory checkpoints where the cell waits for signals before continuing to the next state. Implementing such control would allow genetic engineers to divide complex tasks into stages. We present genetic circuits that encode sequential logic to instruct Escherichia coli to proceed through a linear or cyclical sequence of states. These are buil...
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