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    Two distinct interstitial macrophage populations coexist across tissues in specific subtissular niches - Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population involved in tissue homeostasis, inflammation, and various pathologies. Although the major tissue-resident macrophage populations have been extensively studied, interstitial macrophages (IMs) residing within the tissue parenchyma remain poorly defined. Here we studied IMs from murine lung, fat, heart, and dermis. We identified two independent IM subpopulations that are conserved across tissues: Lyve...
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    The genomic landscape of pediatric cancers: Implications for diagnosis and treatment - The past decade has witnessed a major increase in our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of childhood cancer. Genomic sequencing studies have highlighted key differences between pediatric and adult cancers. Whereas many adult cancers are characterized by a high number of somatic mutations, pediatric cancers typically have few somatic mutations but a higher prevalence of germline alterations in cancer predisposition genes. Also noteworthy...
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    Ushering in the next generation of precision trials for pediatric cancer - Cancer treatment decisions are increasingly based on the genomic profile of the patient’s tumor, a strategy called "precision oncology." Over the past few years, a growing number of clinical trials and case reports have provided evidence that precision oncology is an effective approach for at least some children with cancer. Here, we review key factors influencing pediatric drug development in the era of precision oncology. We describe an ...
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    Science and health for all children with cancer - Each year ~429,000 children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 years are expected to develop cancer. Five-year survival rates exceed 80% for the 45,000 children with cancer in high-income countries (HICs) but are less than 30% for the 384,000 children in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). Improved survival rates in HICs have been achieved through multidisciplinary care and research, with treatment regimens using mostly generic medicines and optimi...
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    The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2 from 1994 to 2007 - We quantify the oceanic sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) over the period 1994 to 2007 by using observations from the global repeat hydrography program and contrasting them to observations from the 1990s. Using a linear regression–based method, we find a global increase in the anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 34 ± 4 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) between 1994 and 2007. This is equivalent to an average uptake rate of 2.6 ±...
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    Redefining near-unity luminescence in quantum dots with photothermal threshold quantum yield - A variety of optical applications rely on the absorption and reemission of light. The quantum yield of this process often plays an essential role. When the quantum yield deviates from unity by significantly less than 1%, applications such as luminescent concentrators and optical refrigerators become possible. To evaluate such high performance, we develop a measurement technique for luminescence efficiency with sufficient accuracy below one part ...
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    Terminal coordination of diatomic boron monofluoride to iron - Boron monofluoride (BF) is a diatomic molecule with 10 valence electrons, isoelectronic to carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike CO, which is a stable molecule at room temperature and readily serves as both a bridging and terminal ligand to transition metals, BF is unstable below 1800°C in the gas phase, and its coordination chemistry is substantially limited. Here, we report the isolation of the iron complex Fe(BF)(CO)2(CNArTripp2)2 [ArTripp2, 2,6-(...
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    A molecular perovskite solid solution with piezoelectricity stronger than lead zirconate titanate - Piezoelectric materials produce electricity when strained, making them ideal for different types of sensing applications. The most effective piezoelectric materials are ceramic solid solutions in which the piezoelectric effect is optimized at what are termed morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs). Ceramics are not ideal for a variety of applications owing to some of their mechanical properties. We synthesized piezoelectric materials from a molecul...
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    Males as somatic investment in a parthenogenetic nematode - We report the reproductive strategy of the nematode Mesorhabditis belari. This species produces only 9% males, whose sperm is necessary to fertilize and activate the eggs. However, most of the fertilized eggs develop without using the sperm DNA and produce female individuals. Only in 9% of eggs is the male DNA utilized, producing sons. We found that mixing of parental genomes only gives rise to males because the Y-bearing sperm of males are much...
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    Herbivores as drivers of negative density dependence in tropical forest saplings - Ecological theory predicts that the high local diversity observed in tropical forests is maintained by negative density–dependent interactions within and between closely related plant species. By using long-term data on tree growth and survival for coexisting Inga (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) congeners, we tested two mechanisms thought to underlie negative density dependence (NDD): competition for resources and attack by herbivores. We quantifi...
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    Histone demethylase KDM6A directly senses oxygen to control chromatin and cell fate - Oxygen sensing is central to metazoan biology and has implications for human disease. Mammalian cells express multiple oxygen-dependent enzymes called 2-oxoglutarate (OG)-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDDs), but they vary in their oxygen affinities and hence their ability to sense oxygen. The 2-OGDD histone demethylases control histone methylation. Hypoxia increases histone methylation, but whether this reflects direct effects on histone demethylas...
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    Hypoxia induces rapid changes to histone methylation and reprograms chromatin - Oxygen is essential for the life of most multicellular organisms. Cells possess enzymes called molecular dioxygenases that depend on oxygen for activity. A subclass of molecular dioxygenases is the histone demethylase enzymes, which are characterized by the presence of a Jumanji-C (JmjC) domain. Hypoxia can alter chromatin, but whether this is a direct effect on JmjC-histone demethylases or due to other mechanisms is unknown. Here, we report tha...
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    RIT1 oncoproteins escape LZTR1-mediated proteolysis - RIT1 oncoproteins have emerged as an etiologic factor in Noonan syndrome and cancer. Despite the resemblance of RIT1 to other members of the Ras small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), mutations affecting RIT1 are not found in the classic hotspots but rather in a region near the switch II domain of the protein. We used an isogenic germline knock-in mouse model to study the effects of RIT1 mutation at the organismal level, which resulted in a ...
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    The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years - We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia&rs...
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    Human sound systems are shaped by post-Neolithic changes in bite configuration - Linguistic diversity, now and in the past, is widely regarded to be independent of biological changes that took place after the emergence of Homo sapiens. We show converging evidence from paleoanthropology, speech biomechanics, ethnography, and historical linguistics that labiodental sounds (such as "f" and "v") were innovated after the Neolithic. Changes in diet attributable to food-processing technologies modified the human bite from an edge-t...
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    Acoel genome reveals the regulatory landscape of whole-body regeneration - Whole-body regeneration is accompanied by complex transcriptomic changes, yet the chromatin regulatory landscapes that mediate this dynamic response remain unexplored. To decipher the regulatory logic that orchestrates regeneration, we sequenced the genome of the acoel worm Hofstenia miamia, a highly regenerative member of the sister lineage of other bilaterians. Epigenomic profiling revealed thousands of regeneration-responsive chromatin region...
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